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List of academic databases and search engines


List of academic databases and search engines

List of academic databases and search engines

This article contains a representative list of notable databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, institutional repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles. Databases and search engines differ substantially in terms of coverage and retrieval qualities. Users need to account for qualities and limitations of databases and search engines, especially those searching systematically for records such as in systematic reviews or meta-analyses. As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see:
  • the general list of search engines for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes
  • the article about bibliographic databases for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles.
The terms "free", "subscription", and "free & subscription" will refer to the availability of the website as well as the journal articles used. Furthermore, some programs are only partly free (for example, accessing abstracts or a small number of items), whereas complete access is prohibited (login or institutional subscription required).

The "Size" column denotes the number of documents (articles, publications, datasets, preprints) rather than the number of citations or references. The database itself should be the primary source of statistics, and if it is not accessible, the independent estimates released as journal papers should be. Notably, Google Scholar does not offer such detail, but the database's size has been calculated.

Operating services

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.

Name Provider(s)
Academic Search[3] EBSCO Publishing
Aerospace & High Technology Database ProQuest
African Journals OnLine (AJOL)[4] AJOL
AgeLine[3] EBSCO Publishing
AGRICOLA: Agricultural Online Access[5] NAL (free access NAL, subscription access ProQuest, OVID)
AGRIS: Agricultural database[6] FAO
Airiti Airiti Inc.
Analytical Abstracts[7] RSC
Analytical sciences digital library[8] NSDL and ACS
Anthropological Index Online[9] RAI
Anthropological Literature[10] Harvard University (non-Harvard access provided by OCLC)
Arachne[11] DAI & University of Cologne
ArchiveGrid WorldCat
AMiner[12] Tsinghua University
Arts & Humanities Citation Index[13] Clarivate Analytics
Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library Association for Computing Machinery
Astrophysics Data System[14] Harvard University
ATLA Religion Database[15] EBSCO Publishing
AULIMP: Air University Library's Index to Military Periodicals Air University
BASE: Bielefeld Academic Search Engine[16] Bielefeld University
Bibliographie de civilisation médiévale University of Poitiers (available from Brepols Publishers)
Biological Abstracts[17] Thomson Reuters
BioOne BioOne
Book Review Index Online Thomson Gale
Books In Print R. R. Bowker
CAB Abstracts CABI
Chemical Abstracts Service ACS
Chinese Social Science Citation Index[18] Nanjing University
CINAHL: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health[19] EBSCO
CiNii[20] National Institute of Informatics
CHBD: Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database[21] University of Calgary
CiteSeerX[22] Pennsylvania State University
Civil engineering database American Society of Civil Engineers
Cochrane Library Wiley Interscience
COnnecting REpositories (CORE)[23] Open University
Crossref[24] Crossref
Current Contents Clarivate Analytics
DeepDyve DeepDyve
Dimensions[25] Digital Science & Research Solutions Ltd
Directory of Open Access Journals[26] Lund University
DBLP[27] Leibniz Center for Informatics and University of Trier
EconBiz[28] ZBW- German National Library of Economics– Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (ZBW)
EconLit[29] American Economic Association (available from EBSCOhost, ProQuest, OVID, and AEA)
Ei Compendex Elsevier
EMBASE[30] Elsevier
ERIC: Educational Resource Information Center[31] United States Department of Education (available by subscription from OCLC, CSA)
Europe PMC[32] EMBL-EBI
FSTA – Food Science and Technology Abstracts IFIS Publishing (available via EBSCOhost, IHS Inc., Ovid, Proquest Dialog, STN and Web of Science)
GeoRef[33] American Geosciences Institute
Global Health[34] CABI
Google Scholar[1] Google
HAL CNRS's Centre pour la Communication Scientifique Directe (CCSD)
Index Copernicus[36] Index Copernicus Ltd
Information Bridge: Department of Energy Scientific and Technical Information DOE (OSTI)
Informit RMIT Training Pty Ltd (RMIT Training)
IngentaConnect Ingenta
Indian Citation Index[37] ICI
IARP[38] Volunteer Collaboration
Inspec IET
International Directory of Philosophy Philosophy Documentation Center
International Medieval Bibliography[39] Leeds University (available from Brepols Publishers)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)[40] International Atomic Energy Agency
International Philosophical Bibliography Université Catholique de Louvain (available from Peeters Publishers)
Internet Archive Scholar
J-Gate[41] Informatics India Ltd
JournalSeek Genamics
JSTOR: Journal Storage JSTOR
Jurn David Haden
L'Année philologique Société Internationale de Bibliographie Classique (available from Brepols Publishers)
LexisNexis Reed Elsevier
The Lens[42] Cambia
Lingbuzz University of Tromsø
Linguamatics Linguamatics
Logeion University of Chicago
MathSciNet American Mathematical Society
Mendeley[43] Elsevier
Microsoft Academic[44] Microsoft
MyScienceWork MyScienceWork Inc
National Criminal Justice Reference Service United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs
National Diet Library Collection National Diet Library
OAIster[45] OCLC
OpenEdition.org Cléo (UMS 3287) CNRS EHESS University of Avignon
OpenGray Institut de l'information scientifique et technique
Paperity[47] Paperity Sp. z o.o.
Philosophy Documentation Center eCollection Philosophy Documentation Center
Philosophy Research Index Philosophy Documentation Center
PhilPapers PhilPapers
POIESIS: Philosophy Online Serials Philosophy Documentation Center
Project MUSE Project MUSE, Johns Hopkins University Press
PubMed[48] NIH, NLM
PubMed Central (PMC)[49] NIH, NLM
Publons[50] Clarivate Analytics
PubPsych Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information
Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature H. W. Wilson Company
RePEc: Research Papers in Economics[51] IDEAS: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

EconPapers: Örebro University School of Business

ResearchGate ResearchGate GmbH
Rock's Backpages[52] Backpages Ltd
Russian Science Citation Index Scientific Electronic Library
SafetyLit SafetyLit Foundation
Science.gov United States Government
Science Citation Index[53] Clarivate Analytics
ScienceOpen ScienceOpen Inc.
Scientific Information Database (SID) Scientific Information Database
SCIndeks - Serbian Citation Index CEON/CEES - Centre for Evaluation in Education and Science
Science Direct Elsevier
Scopus[54] Elsevier
SearchTeam Zakta
Semantic Scholar Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence
SNAC (Social Networks and Archival Contexts)
Social Science Citation Index Clarivate Analytics
Socolar China Educational Publications Import and Export Corporation
SSRN: Social Science Research Network Elsevier
Sparrho Distylled Ltd.
SpringerLink Springer
Unpaywall[55] Our Research
Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ProQuest
VET-Bib Cedefop
Web of Science[54] Clarivate Analytics
WestLaw Thomson Reuters
WorldCat[56] OCLC Inc.
WorldWideScience DOE (OSTI)
Zasshi Kiji Sakuin: Japanese Periodicals Index National Diet Library
Zentralblatt MATH FIZ Karlsruhe
The Zoological Record Clarivate Analytics
DiVA (open archive) Uppsala University